• B.U.N. (Blood Urea Nitrogen) - Increases can be caused by excessive protein intake, kidney damage, certain drugs, low fluid intake, intestinal bleeding, exercise or heart failure. Decreased levels may be due to a poor diet, malabsorption, liver damage or low nitrogen intake.
Normal Adult Range: 7 - 25 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 16 mg/DL
CREATININE - Low levels are sometimes seen in kidney damage, protein starvation, liver disease or pregnancy. Elevated levels are sometimes seen in kidney disease due to the kidneys job of excreting creatinine, muscle degeneration, and some drugs involved in impairment of kidney function,
Congestive heart failure
Normal Adult Range: 0 .7 - 1.4 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 1.05
Creatinine is formed in muscles from creatine, which is formed in the liver. It is a substance that in health is easily excreted by the kidney. Because all Creatinine filtered by the kidneys is excreted into the urine, its levels at any given time interval are ***************alent to the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR).
• URIC ACID - High levels are noted in gout, infections, kidney disease, alcoholism, high protein diets, and with toxemia in pregnancy. Low levels may be indicative of kidney disease, malabsorption, poor diet, liver damage or an overly acid kidney.
Normal Adult Female Range: 2.5 - 7.5 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 5.0
Normal Adult Male Range: 3.5 - 7.5 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Male Reading:5.5
• BUN/CREATININE - This calculation is a good measurement of kidney and liver function.
Normal Adult Range: 6 -25 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 15.5