about80% of all kidney stones are made of
calcium compounds, especially calcium oxalate.1 Calcium phosphate and other
minerals also may be present. Conditions that cause high calcium levels in the
body, such as hyperparathyroidism, increase the risk of calcium stones. High
levels of oxalate also increase the risk for calcium stones.
Certain medicines may prevent calcium stones.
Uric acid stones
About 5% to 10% of kidney stones are made of
uric acid, a waste product normally passed out of the body in the urine.1 You
are more likely to have uric acid stones if you have:
Low urine output.
A diet high in animal protein, such as red
An increase in how much alcohol you drink.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Certain medicines may prevent or dissolve uric
About 10% to 15% of kidney stones are struvite
stones.1 They can also be called infection stones if they occur with kidney or
urinary tract infections (UTIs). These types of kidney stones sometimes are
also called staghorn calculi if they grow large enough.
Struvite stones can be serious because they are
often large stones and may occur with an infection. Medical treatment,
including antibiotics and removal of the stone, is usually needed for struvite
stones. Women are affected more than men because of their higher risk of
urinary tract infections.
Less than 1% of kidney stones are made of a
chemical called cystine.1 Cystine stones are more likely to develop in families
with a condition that results in too much cystine in the urine (cystinuria).
Cystine stones may be prevented or dissolved
with medicine, but this may be difficult and not very effective. If the stones
caus moval of the stone will be needed