الرئيسيةالبوابةس .و .جالتسجيلدخول

شاطر | 
 

 شرح كامل ومبسط في علم الدم

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
زائر
زائر



مُساهمةموضوع: شرح كامل ومبسط في علم الدم   الجمعة 19 سبتمبر - 0:45

:2


اليكم هذا الشرح المبسط عن علم الدم وارجو تثبيت الموضوع

ليستفيد منه جميع اعضاء هذا المنتدى الرائع








Blood











I). Functions



A). Distribution
B). Regulation
C). Protection

















II). Components



A). Plasma



1). 90% water
2). 2% 100’s of solute.
3). 8% Plasma proteins

B). Formed elements:

all formed elements originate with the stem cell
















1). Erythrocytes:

2). Leukocytes








a). Granulocytes


i). Neutrophils

ii). Eosinophils

iii). Basophils


b). Agranulocytes


i). Lymphocytes
ii). Monocytes






3). Platelets



III). Erythrocytes













A). Function


Respiratory gas transport



i). great affinity
ii). a large surface area
iii). not use the oxygen
iv). small size


B). Structure

















1). Biconcave
2). No nucleus
3). Few organelles
4). Small
5). hemoglobin molecules

C). Hemoglobin proteins
















4 polypeptide chains & 4-heme
pigment
that contain iron



O2
binding




Hb O2
<----------> HbO
2


D). Production of
Erythrocytes: Erythropoiesis






















1). Hemocytoblast
stem cell

2).Stem cell becomes committed
3). Early erythroblasts have ribosomes

4). Erythroblasts accumulate iron and hemoglobin
5). Normoblasts eject organelles
6). Released as erythrocyte


E). Controls of RBC concentration



1). Hormonal


i). Erythropoietin released
by the kidneys

ii). Testosterone enhances
erythropoietin



2). Erythrocyte destruction




i). Macrophages engulf old RBCs
ii). Iron is salvaged
iii). Heme degrades into bilirubin





SUMMARY of Development and
Destruction Erythrocytes




Low O2





Kidney releases erythropoietin




erythropoiesis in the red
bone marrow




RBCs are
released




Old, damaged RBCs engulfed by macrophages




Remaining heme
Iron recycled







Become bilirubin





Goes to the liver



Bilirubin secreted in
bile






Bile enters the intestine







Converts to urobilinogen






Excreted in feces

F). ABO Blood Types




1).
Antigens & Antibodies





Red blood cells have proteins called
antigens on
the membranes




These can be A or B (or Rh)
or all 3 or none of them.




If there are no A/B
antigens the type is O.




If there are no Rh antigens
it is Rh-.





Another set of proteins
in the plasma
are called
antibodies
or
agglutinogens
[center]


An individual
does not contain antibodies to the
antigens on their red blood cells.








i.e. A person with
an A antigen
would not
have an A
antibody


(anti-A)
in their plasma because it would clump their red
blood cells.





They would however
have an antibody to antigens that are not
normally present
(anti-B)




يتبع...
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
زائر
زائر



مُساهمةموضوع: رد: شرح كامل ومبسط في علم الدم   الجمعة 19 سبتمبر - 1:24

2). Typing





Type O does
not react to
anti A or anti B





Type A reacts to
Anti A but not Anti
B





Type B reacts to
Anti B but not Anti
A





Type AB reacts to
both Anti A & B









Rh reacts to Anti Rh.





Rh- does not react Anti Rh.












Summary of Blood Types





Genetics

Blood Type

Antigen on RBC

Antibody present

Reacts to Serum:

O, O

O

none

Both Anti A
and


Anti B

Neither

Anti A or Anti B

A,A or A,O

A

A

Anti B

Anti A

but not Anti B

B, B or

B, O

B

B

[size=202]Anti A[/size]

Anti B

but not Anti A

A, B

AB

AB

Neither

Anti A or Anti B

Both Anti A
and


Anti B








Rh , Rh or Rh Rh

Rh

Rh

none

Anti Rh

Rh-., Rh-

Rh-

none

None unless exposed to Rh antigens

No reaction to anti Rh








Percentage of the Population With Each
Blood Type








Rh


Rh-


O


38.5%


6.5%


A


34.3%


5.7%


B


8.6%


1.4%


AB


4.3%


0.7%




3). Transfusions


ABO blood types
cannot receive any
blood that contains antigens
that will clump in the
presence of their natural
antibodies.





O-
cannot
take blood from A -, B -, or AB -.




Because they have
anti-A, anti-B and Anti-Rh




They can only take O-.











Universal donor
has no antigens:
O-




Universal acceptor
has no antibodies:
AB










4). Genetics:

i). O is recessive to A & B
ii). A and B are codominant
iii). Rh is dominant over Rh-



4). [b]Rh factor in pregnancies




The Rh- mother will produce anti-Rh antibodies.
Causing hemolytic disease of the
newborn this can lead to brain damage, mental retardation, and even death.








IV[b]). Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)





A). Leukopoiesis


















  • Myeloblasts become all of the
    granular leukocytes
  • Monoblasts become monocytes
  • Lymphoblasts become lymphocytes.













B). [b]Granulocytes:]



  • Contain cytoplasmic granules.
  • Generally spherical in shape





1). Neutrophils


  • contains fine granules
  • a 3-6 lobed nucleus

2). Eosinophils


  • large course granules
  • bi-lobed nucleus

3). Basophils


  • stains very dark
  • large histamine granules






C). Agranulocytes




  • Lack granules.
  • Spherical or kidney shaped nuclei





1). Lymphocytes

Large dark spherical nucleus
i). T-lymphocytes (T-cells)
ii). B-lymphocytes (B-cells)
2). Monocytes Largest leukocytes
U-shaped nucleus.





V). Platelets (Thrombocytes)





A). Formation







  • Large multinucleated cells that pushes against the wall
    of the capillary.
  • Cytoplasmic extensions stick through and separate.



B). Functions
C). Regulated by




VI). Response to Vascular Injury





A). Vascular Damage results in vasoconstriction
B). Platelet Plug Formation
C). Coagulation (blood clotting)

SUMMARY





Platelets release >


PF3 >


tissue factor other
clotting factors >


Prothrombin activator is formed,>

Activator transforms prothrombin >

Prothrombin becomes thrombin >

catalyzes fibrinogen activates
factor XIII >


fibrinogen becomes fibrin fibrin stabilizing
factor >


Fibrin Mesh Forms >


Clot Forms
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
شيخ المختبر
عضو مميز
عضو مميز


ذكر
عدد المساهمات : 236
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/09/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: شرح كامل ومبسط في علم الدم   الأربعاء 24 سبتمبر - 18:03

اسد التحاليل
انك اسد بالابداع والتميز

يا(((((( ملك التحاليل))))))
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
شرح كامل ومبسط في علم الدم
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
شبكة الابداع للتحاليل الطبية  :: منتديات التحاليل الطبية :: علم الدم-
انتقل الى: