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 GLOSSARY OF TERMS

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عدد المساهمات : 139
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/08/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: GLOSSARY OF TERMS   الأحد 17 أغسطس - 2:38

GLOSSARY OF TERMS







AEROBIC
requires oxygen (opposite of anaerobic

AGAR
powder added to media for solidification

AIR-DRY
drying of slide suspension in air before heat fixing and staining

ALIQUOT
dispense an amount of liquid using a pipette

ANALOG
similar structure, but not identical

ANTIBODY
specific, protective protein produced by the immune system in response to an antigen

ANTIGEN
foreign, non-self immunogenic material that elicits an immune response

ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE
procedure to guarantee sterility and to reduce contamination

ATRICHOUS
without flagella, nonmotile

AUTOCLAVE
moist heat method of sterilization using pressure

AXIAL FILAMENT
a structure for motility used by the Spirochaete bacteria

BIBULOUS PAPER
absorbant paper used to blot dry slides after staining

BHI
brain heart infusion, a really good enrichment medium

BRIGHTFIELD MICROSCOPY
full light directed towards the specimen, used for stained and live specimens

BROTH
medium without agar

BROWNIAN MOVEMENT
vibrations of an object seen in a microscope, not true motility

CANDLE JAR
candle burns in a closed container producing a carbon dioxide incubator, containing 2-10% O2 and around 10% CO2

CFU
colony-forming units, i.e. colonies

CHEMICALLY-DEFINED MEDIUM
a synthetic medium, comprised of known ingredients and known amounts

CHITIN
a complex polysaccharide molecule found in walls of fungi and exoskeletons of shrimps and crabs

CHROMATOGRAPHICALLY
migration and separation of molecules through an absorbant material like cotton, over time

CNA
Columbia naladixic acid medium, selective (for Gram +) and differential medium

COAGULATION
clotting of blood, plasma

COLIFORMS
gram - rods which ferment lactose, nonsporeforming

COLONY
a visible mass of bacteria growing on solidifed medium, a clone

COMPLEX MEDIUM
medium with some unknown ingredients or amounts, i.e. blood agar

CONDENSER
collects all available light rays for direction up to the stage opening

COUNTERSTAIN
the 2nd dye added to a smear, taken in after the wall is decolorized, e.g. safrinin, methylene blue

DARKFIELD MICROSCOPY
special condenser blocks most light rays, only reflected light bounces off specimen into lens producing a black field of vision; used for wet mounts

DECOLORIZER
the reagent used to remove the primary dye from the cell wall in a differential stain, e.g. acid alcohol, acetone-alcohol

DIFFERENTIAL STAIN
uses 2 or more dyes which allow differentiation between different bacterial groups or structures

DIAPHRAGM
acts as an iris within the condenser which opens and closes for sensitive light control

DISACCHARIDE
2 sugar molecule, e.g. lactose or sucrose
EMB
Eosin methylene blue medium, selective (for Gram -) and differential medium

EXOENZYME
enzyme excreted away from the cell

FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE
uses oxygen when present but can either ferment or anaerobically respire without it

FASTIDIOUS
hard-to-grow bacteria, requiring grow factors or particular nutrients

FECAL COLIFORMS
gram - rods which ferment lactose, nonsporeforming, GI flora in animals, in feces

FLAGELLA
a structure for motility


FLAGELLATION
differential category of flagella placement around the cell

GENUS
category of organisms with like features and closely related, divided into species

HALOPHILIC
salt-tolerant or salt-loving (salt-requiring
)
HEAT-FIX
use of the flame to 1)coagulate proteins of the suspension, causing adherence to slide, and 2) kill the microbes

HELMINTH
parasitic worm

IMMUNOASSAY
test which identifies antibody in patient based on use of a known antigen, or identifies the antigen based on the use of a known antibody

IMViC
acronym = indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, citrate
MIC
minimal inhibitory concentration of antibiotic that inhibits a bacterium

MICROAEROPHILIC
likes a reduced oxygen concentration

MICROTUBULES
cell organelles involved in structure, framework, skeleton of the cell

MONOSACCHARIDE
simple sugar, e.g. glucose

NA/NB
nutrient agar or nutrient broth

NONIONIC
no electrical charge

OBLIGATE AEROBE
requires oxygen to grow

OBLIGATE ANAEROBE
does not use oxygen to grow, may even be killed by it

OIL-IMMERSION LENS
100X objective lens, to be used always with immersion oil

PALLINDROME
a word or a group of letter that is read frontwards and backwards the same, e.g. radar

PARFOCAL
feature of microscope which allows rotation of lenses with only minor focus movement, lenses
alignment

PATHOGENIC
disease-causing

PCA
plate count agar medium, general all-purpose enrichment

PFU
plaque-forming units produced by bacterial viruses when infecting host bacterial cells

PHASE-CONTRAST MICROSCOPY
special condenser below stage and in objectives change speed of light rays, enhancing density differences inside and outside of cells; used for wet mounts

PHAGE TYPING
test to identify a bacterium based on which known virus infects it

PHENOTYPE
expression of a gene as a trait

PLAQUE
destruction of the bacterial lawn by a bacteriophage as the lytic infection progresses

PLATE COUNT AGAR
variation of nutrient agar, for optimizing counts of bacteria in samples

POUR PLATE
procedure where liquified agar has been poured into a petri dish after being mixed with
bacteria

PRIMARY DYE
the 1st dye used in a differential stain, e.g. malachite green, crystal violet, carbol fuschia

REVOLVING NOSEPIECE
rotating turret attached to the 3 lenses

RESAZURIN
oxygen indicator in thioglycollate broth, pink when oxygenated

SPECIES
a subdivision of a genus, almost identifcal organisms, a clone

SPREAD PLATE
procedure where pre-made agar plates have a sample of bacterium placed on top of the agar and spread via a glass rod

STREAK PLATE
procedure where a bacterial specimen is placed on a pre-made plate and diluted out using flame and multiple sections.

SYMBIOTIC/SYMBIOSIS
a relationship between 2 or more organisms

THERMAL DEATH TIME
minimal amount of time to completely sterilize a specimen at a certain temperature

TSB/TSA
trypticase soy broth or trypticase soy agar

ZONE OF INHIBITION
area of no bacterial growth around a chemical on a disc, indicates sensitivity



الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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عدد المساهمات : 546
تاريخ التسجيل : 13/08/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: GLOSSARY OF TERMS   الإثنين 18 أغسطس - 13:47

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عدد المساهمات : 264
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تاريخ التسجيل : 10/12/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: GLOSSARY OF TERMS   السبت 13 ديسمبر - 1:56




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عدد المساهمات : 635
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تاريخ التسجيل : 07/06/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: GLOSSARY OF TERMS   السبت 13 يونيو - 13:58

thank you too much
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GLOSSARY OF TERMS
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